If, until the mid-90s, planners were satisfied with achieving an optimal combination of outside and self-generated supply and disposal with water, energy and the necessary materials, current innovation aims higher still: zero-energy buildings are well on the way to becoming “mega-out.” What we are aiming at now are buildings that produce more energy than they consume – that is really designing for sustainability. Water-saving technologies should make way for self-contained water cycles, or failing that, wastewater-free buildings which produce compost and “industrial water,” and green spaces that produce fresh food without requiring much input – thus becoming edible parks. The emphasis is not so much on self-sufficiency as on sustainable husbandry, orienting one’s production and consumption on the carrying capacity of the land.

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